Note: Some of the following references may be of interest to researchers. Except as noted at the end, these materials were cited in the director's dissertation.

Baer, Hans A. 1988a. Bibliography of social science literature on Afro-American religion in the United States. Review of Religious Research 29 (4): 413-30

. 1988b. Black mainstream churches: Emancipatory or accommodative responses to racism and social stratification in American society? Review of Religious Research 30 (2): 162-76

Barisic, Sonja. 1996. Black churches in crisis, U.S. clergy leaders claim. Chattanooga Free Press, 21 June 1996, 2(B).

Barna Research Group, Ltd. 1996a. "African-American adults and faith: A national perspective". Oxnard, Calif.: The Barna Research Group, Ltd.

Barna Research Group, Ltd.. 1996b. "African-American teenagers in the U.S.: The experience, beliefs, and attitudes of African American Teenagers". Oxnard, Calif.: The Barna Research Group, Ltd.

Barna Research Group, Ltd. 1997. "African-American churches in the U.S.: Research among pastors of African-American churches". Oxnard, Calif.: The Barna Research Group, Ltd.

Bedell, Kenneth B. ed. 1996. Yearbook of American and Canadian churches 1996. New York, N.Y.: National Council of Churches of Christ in the U.S.A.

Beeghley, Leonard, Ellen Van Velsor, and E. Wilbur Bock. 1981. The correlates of religiosity among Black and White Americans. The Sociological Quarterly 22 (3): 403-12.

Bennett, Lerone, Jr. 1982. Before the Mayflower: A history of Black America. 5th ed. New York, N.Y.: Penguin Books.

Carlson, Tucker. 1992. That old-time religion: Why Black men are returning to church. Policy Review Summer: 13-17.

Campolo, Tony. 1986. Conversion and wealth: Making all things equal. World Christian Jan.-Feb., 1986: 36-37.

Cooper-Lewter, Nicholas and Henry H. Mitchell. 1986. The providence of God. Chapter 2 of Soul theology: The heart of American Black culture. San Francisco, Cal.: Harper and Row Publishers.

Couchman, Iain S.B. 1973. Notes from a White researcher in Black society. Journal of Social Issues 29 (1): 45-52.

Edwards, Karen L. African-American psychological health. The Journal of Ethnic Studies 17 (3): 1-31.

Ellison, C.G. and D.A. Gay. 1990. Religion, religious commitment and life satisfaction among Black Americans. The Sociological Quarterly 31 (1), 123-47.

Foster, George M. 1965. Peasant society and the image of the limited good. American Anthropologist 67 (2): 293-315. 1974. Limited good or limited goods: Observations on Acheson. American Anthropologist 76 (1): 53-62.

Gallup, George Jr. and Jim Castelli. 1989. The people's religion: American faith in the 90's. New York, N.Y.: Macmillan Publishing Company.

Glenn, Norval D. and Erin Gotard. 1977. The religion of Blacks in the United States: Some recent trends and current characteristics. American Journal of Sociology 83: 443-51.

Gordon, Robert. 1973. Black man's burden. Evangelical Missions Quarterly 9 (5): 267-76.

Gurin, Patricia, Gerald Gurin, Rosina C. Lao, and Muriel Beattie. 1969. Internal-external control in the motivational dynamics of Negro youth. Journal of Social Issues 25 (3): 29-53.

Harr, Wilbur. 1945. "The Negro as an American Protestant missionary in Africa". Ph.D. dissertation, microfilm, University of Chicago.

Hays, J. Daniel. 1996a. The Cushites: A Black nation in ancient history. Bibliotheca Sacra 153 (611), 270-80.

________ 1996b. The Cushites: A Black nation in the Bible. Bibliotheca Sacra 153 (612), 396-409.

Hillis, Dick. 1969. The missing Black missionary. World Vision Magazine 13 (1): 14,24.

Hodgkinson, Virginia A. and Murray S. Weitzman. 1990. Giving and volunteering in the U.S.: Findings from a national survey. The Gallup Organization. Washington, D.C.: Independent Sector.

Hughes, M. and D.H. Demo. 1989. Self-perceptions of Black Americans: Self-esteem and personal efficacy. American Journal of Sociology 95 (1), 132-59.

Hughley, Clyde E. 1983. An analysis of Black American involvement in world missions. Master of Theology thesis, Dallas Theological Seminary.

Jacobs, Sylvia M. ed. 1982. Black Americans and the missionary movement in Africa. Contributions in Afro-American and African Studies, #66. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.

Jacobson, Cardell K., Tim B. Heaton, and Rutledge M. Dennis. 1990. Black-White differences in religiosity: Item analysis and a formal structural test. Sociological Analysis 51 (3): 257-70.

. 1992. Religiosity in a Black community: An examination of secularization and political variables. Review of Religious Research 33 (3): 215-29.

Jones, Lawrence N. 1995. The Organized Church: Its historic significance and changing role in contemporary African American experience, 1-18. ed. Wardell J. Payne. Directory of African American religious bodies: A compendium by the Howard University School of Divinity, 2nd ed., Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press.

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Kaufman, Jonathan and Anita Raghavan. 1997. All in the family: The Jones brothers frame a 'Great Debate' over success and race. The Wall Street Journal, 21 November 1997, 1 (A) and 10 (A).

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Latourette, Kenneth Scott. [1941, 1969] 1970. The United States of America: The Negroes. Chapter 9 of The great century in Europe and the United States of America: A.D. 1800- A.D. 1914. Vol. IV in A history of the expansion of Christianity. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan Publishing House. Contemporary Evangelical Perspectives Series: 325-66.

Luker, Ralph E. 1984. Missions, institutional churches, and settlement houses: The Black experience, 1885-1910. The Journal of Negro History LXIX (3,4): 101-13.

Martin, Sandy Dwayne. 1982. Black Baptists, foreign missions, and African colonization, 1814-1882. In Black Americans and the missionary movement in Africa, ed. Sylvia M. Jacobs, 63-76. Contributions in Afro-American and African Studies, #66, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.

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Nelson, Hart M. 1988. Unchurched Black Americans: Patterns of religiosity and affiliation. Review of Religious Research 29 (4): 398-412.

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Payne, Wardell J., ed. 1991. Dictionary of African American religious bodies: A compendium by the Howard School of Divinity. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press. S.v. "Introduction: The organized church: Its historic significance and changing role in contemporary African American experience," by Lawrence N. Jones.

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. 1988b. Correlates of religious non-involvement among Black Americans. Review of Religious Research 30 (2): 126-39.

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. 1995b. Table 3, "Distribution of the population, by region, residence, age, sex, and race: March 1995". Accessed 18 October 1997. Available from

_______ . 1996. Table 1, "Selected Social Characteristics of the Population, by Sex, Region, and Race: March 1996". Accessed 27 February 1998. Available from

________ . 1997. "The Black population in the United States: March 1996 (Update)", by Claudette Bennett. Current Population Reports: Population Characteristics. Issue June 1997. Accessed 18 October 1997. Available from

. Table F-13B, "Work of husbands and wife—Black married couple families, by median income: 1976-1996". Accessed 3 December 1997. Available from

Vaughan, Elaine and Brenda Nordenstam. 1991. The perception of environmental risks among ethnically diverse groups. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 22 (1): 29-60.

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Welch, Michael R. 1978. The unchurched: Black religious non-affiliates. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 17 (3): 289-93.

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. 1982. The missionary: Introduction. In Black Americans and the missionary movement in Africa. Contributions in Afro-American and African Studies, #66, ed. Sylvia M. Jacobs, 131-34. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.

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For those continuing in the line of inquiry of this research, two sources, which were unavailable to the author through inter-library loan, are noted below:

Russell, Bodine Tenney. 1945. "What are the policies, practices, and attitudes of the foreign mission boards in North America with reference to the sending of American Negroes as foreign missionaries?". M.A. Thesis, McCormick Theological Seminary, Chicago, Ill.

Smith, Kelly Miller. 1993. "Christian training in stewardship for African American churches in the twenty-first century". D.Min. Project, Union Theological Seminary, New York, N.Y.

Recently published:

Cornelius, David. 1999. A historical survey of African Americans in world missions. In Perspectives on the world Christian movement. Eds. Ralph D. Winter and Stephen Hawthorne, 287-292. Pasadena, Cal.: William Carey Library. ISBN: 0853649995.